Sunday, May 24, 2020

Solar Radiation and the Earths Albedo

Nearly all of the energy arriving on planet Earth and driving the various weather events, oceanic currents, and distribution of ecosystems originates with the sun. This intense solar radiation as it is known in physical geography originates in the sun’s core and is eventually sent to Earth after convection (the vertical movement of energy) forces it away from the sun’s core. It takes approximately eight minutes for solar radiation to reach the Earth after leaving the sun’s surface. Once this solar radiation arrives on Earth, its energy is distributed unevenly across the globe by latitude. As this radiation enters the Earth’s atmosphere it hits near the equator and develops an energy surplus. Because less direct solar radiation arrives at the poles, they, in turn, develop an energy deficit. To keep energy balanced on the Earth’s surface, the excess energy from the equatorial regions flows toward the poles in a cycle so energy will be balanced across the globe. This cycle is called the Earth-Atmosphere energy balance. Solar Radiation Pathways Once the Earth’s atmosphere receives shortwave solar radiation, the energy is referred to as insolation. This insolation is the energy input responsible for moving the various Earth-atmosphere systems like the energy balance described above but also weather events, oceanic currents, and other Earth cycles. Insolation can be direct or diffuse. Direct radiation is solar radiation received by the Earth’s surface and/or atmosphere that has not been altered by atmospheric scattering. Diffused radiation is solar radiation that has been modified by scattering. Scattering itself is one of five pathways solar radiation can take when entering the atmosphere. It occurs when insolation is deflected and/or redirected upon entering the atmosphere by dust, gas, ice, and water vapor present there. If the energy waves have a shorter wavelength, they are scattered more than those with longer wavelengths. Scattering and how it reacts with wavelength size are responsible for many things we see in the atmosphere such as the sky’s blue color and white clouds. Transmission is another solar radiation pathway. It occurs when both shortwave and longwave energy pass through the atmosphere and water instead of scattering when interacting with gases and other particles in the atmosphere. Refraction can also occur when solar radiation enters the atmosphere. This pathway happens when energy moves from one type of space to another, such as from air into water. As the energy moves from these spaces, it changes its speed and direction when reacting with the particles present there. The shift in direction often causes the energy to bend and release the various light colors within it, similar to what happens as light passes through a crystal or prism. Absorption is the fourth type of solar radiation pathway and is the conversion of energy from one form into another. For example, when solar radiation is absorbed by water, its energy shifts to the water and raises its temperature. This is common of all-absorbing surfaces from a tree’s leaf to asphalt. The final solar radiation pathway is a reflection. This is when a portion of energy bounces directly back to space without being absorbed, refracted, transmitted, or scattered. An important term to remember when studying solar radiation and reflection is albedo. Albedo Albedo is defined as the reflective quality of a surface. It is expressed as a percentage of reflected insolation to incoming insolation and zero percent is total absorption while 100% is the total reflection. In terms of visible colors, darker colors have a lower albedo, that is, they absorb more insolation, and lighter colors have a high albedo, or higher rates of reflection. For example, snow reflects 85-90% of insolation, whereas asphalt reflects only 5-10%. The angle of the sun also impacts albedo value and lower sun angles create greater reflection because the energy coming from a low sun angle is not as strong as that arriving from a high sun angle. Additionally, smooth surfaces have a higher albedo while rough surfaces reduce it. Like solar radiation in general, albedo values also vary across the globe with latitude but Earth’s average albedo is around 31%. For surfaces between the tropics (23.5Â °N to 23.5Â °S) the average albedo is 19-38%. At the poles, it can be as high as 80% in some areas. This is a result of the lower sun angle present at the poles but also the higher presence of fresh snow, ice, and smooth open water- all areas prone to high levels of reflectivity. Albedo, Solar Radiation, and Humans Today, albedo is a major concern for humans worldwide. As industrial activities increase air pollution, the atmosphere itself is becoming more reflective because there are more aerosols to reflect insolation. In addition, the low albedo of the world’s largest cities sometimes creates urban heat islands which impacts both city planning and energy consumption. Solar radiation is also finding its place in new plans for renewable energy- most notably solar panels for electricity and black tubes for heating water. These items’ dark colors have low albedos and therefore absorb nearly all of the solar radiation striking them, making them efficient tools for harnessing the sun’s power worldwide. Regardless of the sun’s efficiency in electricity generation though, the study of solar radiation and albedo is essential to the understanding of Earth’s weather cycles, ocean currents, and locations of different ecosystems.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Analysis of on the Road by Langston Hughes Essay - 1401 Words

Beautiful symbolism and imagery are found in the literature work On the Road by Langston Hughes. Langston Hughes offers a gift in this work which is to open the heart and life will provide unlimited abundance. During this literary analysis Langston Hughes uses nature to demonstrate his main characters unwillingness to participate in life. Another point that Hughes demonstrates is the use of anger and survival and how it can be used as a powerful force in breaking down racial barriers. One more impact Langston Hughes uses is Jesus Christ as a metaphor. Hughes uses this as how people experience life and how traditional church values contradict each other when it comes to the acceptance of human beings. Therefore after reading On the Road,†¦show more content†¦The thought appears that dark and light can come together. The contrast of the light and dark created a complete symmetry to the world and society. Langston Hughes use of nature gives the thought of the outside world but the feeling of emotion in the heart. Something as easy as nature creates the biggest impact to the soul. Hughes realized that and he expressed it in his work of On the Road. Another point that is conveyed in Langston Hughes work is the use of anger and survival in his main character. These two things combined can be a powerful force when it comes to taking action against the suppression of society. The main character faced society in the vision of racism. Langston Hughes expressed that the thought of the black man was the fact that the black man was mistreated and the whites were to blame. Anger is often the result when expressions are limited. From anger, survivalist mode kicks in, and the feeling of being detached from God. As seen in the works, its clear that Sargeant is struggling for survival. Its also clear that due to the pain he feels whites have inflicted upon him; he will now take any measures necessary to insure his own best interest. Langston Hughes conducted his words of this literature to make points clear and abrasive. The main character was desperate and wanted to prove the whites wrong, but what was actually going on was not the proving theShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of On The Road By Langston Hughes1570 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"On the Road† Analysis â€Å"On the Road† is a short story written by Langston Hughes whose major themes are of race, religion, and subjective nature of fiction. An influential African-American writer, Hughes was born in 1902 and primarily raised by his maternal grandmother (Meyer 1032). Over the course of his illustrious career he would go on to write poems, novels, short stories, essays, plays, opera librettos, histories, documentaries, anthologies, autobiographies, biographies, children’s booksRead MoreAnalysis Of On The Road By Langston Hughes868 Words   |  4 PagesWalker insists that there is representation to white people when the narrator of the story â€Å"On the Road† by Langston Hughes speaks of the church and the snow. Walker does include some nice points, points that one could easily see. Some of her points and observations though, I feel are a bit of a long shot. I have the same feelings towards Walker’s comparison of â€Å"On the Road† and the story of Samson. Walker’s first theory is that the snow is â€Å"a symbol of the white oppressive world that is makingRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of Langston Hughes s The Road 1402 Words   |  6 Pagesthe Road by Langston Hughes. 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You can shape sound within a poem through accent, alliteration, assonance, consonance, internal rhyme, meter, onomatopoeia, rhyme and rhythm. She uses a combination of these sound devices used in poetryRead MoreLiterary Criticsm1882 Words   |  8 Pageson Thank you m’am short story By Langston Hughes Christina taradifa sinaga 13020110141054 Faculty of humanities Diponegoro university 2013 ABSTRACT In this paper the writer wants to write down about Psychological criticism. Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors. The purposes of this paper to analysis the psychological of main character in Thank You M’am short story by Langston Hughes. To understand psychological criticismRead MoreLiterary Techniques Poetry Analysis 1758 Words   |  6 PagesLiterary Techniques: Poetry Analysis 1 Diction and Imagery Literary Techniques †¢ The meaning of a poem (i.e its focus, mood and the speaker’s attitude) is enhanced by four main types of literary techniques: †¢ Diction †¢ Imagery †¢ Sound devices †¢ Rhythm, Rhyme and Repetition Diction †¢ Diction is the choice of words a poet uses to bring meaning across. In working through a poem, it is useful to question why a certain word is used, and what kind of effect is achieved with the choice and placementRead MoreHarlem And The Middle Of The 1930s1791 Words   |  8 Pagesscholars. Many had come from the South, fleeing its oppressive caste system in order to find a place where they could freely express their talents; this became known as The Great Migration. Among those artists whose works achieved recognition were Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, Countee Cullen, Arna Bontemps, Zora Neale Hurston, and Jean Toomer. The Renaissance involved racial pride, fueled in part by the violence of the New Negro demanding civil and political rights. The Renaissance incorporated jazzRead MoreNot Without Laughter Study Guide9912 Words   |  40 PagesLiterature Study Guide Not Without Laughter by Langston Hughes For the online version of BookRags Not Without Laughter Literature Study Guide, including complete copyright information, please visit: http://www.bookrags.com/studyguide-not-without-laughter/ Copyright Information  ©2000-2012 BookRags, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. The following sections of this BookRags Literature Study Guide is offprint from Gales For Students Series: Presenting Analysis, Context, and Criticism on Commonly Studied Works:Read MoreMedia Magic Making Class Invisible2198 Words   |  9 Pagesand upper classes as well. Add Project New English essays Much Ado About Gender Roles (15 August) Report regarding a proposed amendment of certain sections of th (13 August) Community Influence In Literature (18 July) Ode To A Urn Detailed Analysis (17 June) Occurrence At Owl Creek Bridge (14 June) Newburgh (14 June) Countee Cullen: A Reniassance Man (14 June) Death In The Hours (14 June) Antigone (14 June) The Art Of Persuasion (14 June) Compare And Contrast (13 June) SonnysRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of Gwendolyn Brooks s The Bean Eaters 1907 Words   |  8 Pagesencouraged; after reading her seven-year-old daughter s precocious poetry, Brooks s mother proclaimed to her, You are going to be a poet. Brooks published her first poem at age thirteen in American Childhoodmagazine. At age sixteen she met Langston Hughes , who read her poems and offered encouragement after a poetry reading. After graduating from an integrated high school in 1934, Brooks was a regular poetry contributor to the Chicago Defender beginning in 1934. After graduating from Wilson Junior

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Mental Health Issues Among Hiv Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

string(96) " cause greater mental and psychological convulsion which finally leads to mental wellness jobs\." This literature reappraisal aims at researching the Global load of HIV and its relationship with mental wellness, Identifying mental and psychological wellness issues experienced by the HIV positive patients. The reappraisal besides aims at analysing the effects of these mental wellness issues in disease patterned advance and overall impact of these issues on their quality of life. Furthermore, the reappraisal will besides research some of the Global and regional enterprises for proviso of mental wellness installations to this vulnerable population. We will write a custom essay sample on Mental Health Issues Among Hiv Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Finally the reappraisal concludes with the critical assessment and spreads with my research inquiry and attack. Methodology/ Search scheme A systematic and comprehensive literature hunt was conducted to reexamine and analyse the bing literature on the topic under survey. A general to specific attack and skimming of the rubric and abstracts was followed to segregate relevant articles. Several nursing and non-nursing informations bases were searched. The hunt scheme is summarized in Figure. I. Initially the hunt was started from the Google bookman cyberspace based database to acquire clasp of the general position of the research job. The Google bookman hunt revealed more than 100,000 consequences which were refined through cardinal words. The hunt was built on with the cardinal words in nursing databases like CINAHL plus ( cumulative index to nursing and allied wellness literature ) , Medline and PubMed, Figure. I. For the intent of seeking more relevant surveies on the research job, lineage attack was followed ; commendations from already searched articles from the databases were used to track other surveies on the simil ar subject. Manual hunt was besides performed in AKUH periodicals like, Current sentiment in HIV and AIDS, HIV medical specialty and Journal of HIV/AIDS A ; Social Services. This literature reappraisal paper is based on synthesis of 8 surveies and 2 literature reappraisals extracted from different beginnings, combination of Western and Asiatic context, and a combination of qualitative and quantitative surveies. Abstractions, conference proceedings and commentaries were excluded. However, WHO, UNAIDS and World Bank studies on HIV were included. No surveies were found from Pakistani context in respect to mental wellness issues among HIV patients. Background and significance of the Research job Global Burden of HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV ) remains a existent menace to the wellness and socioeconomic well-being of many of the states of the universe. Harmonizing to the World Health Organization ( 2011 ) planetary sum-up of the AIDS epidemic, the entire figure of people populating with HIV is 34.0 million out of which 30.7 million are grownups, 16.7 million are adult females and 3.3 million histories for kids lt ; 15 old ages of age. There is a considerable fluctuation in tendencies globally. Kilmarx ( 2009 ) indicates a lessening in HIV prevalence in Burma, Cambodia, and Thailand, whereas increasing quickly in Pakistan, Vietnam, and some states of Indonesia. Furthermore, there is an increasing advancement of new infections in the really thickly settled states of Bangladesh and China. Ma, Zhang, He et Al ( 2007 ) lists the major factors lending towards HIV globally and in most Asiatic states which are, injection drug usage, sex work, male-male sex, and overlap in these behaviours. Relationship between HIV and mental wellness HIV is one of the most complicated societal challenges faced by modern-day societies due to its strong ties with sexual and social stigmatized behaviour. Asante ( 2012 ) states that one time diagnosed with HIV, it may take to lower self- regard, uneffective header and societal isolation and hapless psychological well-being. The WHO ( 2008 ) study on HIV AIDS and mental wellness comment mental wellness and HIV/AIDS as closely interlinked. Mental wellness jobs including substance maltreatment are associated with increased hazard of HIV infection and AIDS and interfere with their intervention. While on the other manus, some mental upsets occur as a direct consequence of HIV infection. It is of import to understand that mental wellness issues in HIV positive patients may be associated with negative experiences and hapless attachment to intervention regimens, taking to greater HIV hazard behaviour, and lower quality of life which is a critical factor in HIV attention and bar. WHO ( 2008 ) besides affirms the exposure of mental upsets that may interfere with the ability to get or utilize information about HIV and pattern safe behaviours. Collins, Hollman, Freeman, and Patel ( 2006 ) reveal that depression consequences in worst results for people populating with HIV and those with anxiousness, temper and substance maltreatment upsets demonstrate a less or decelerate response towards anti-retroviral therapy as compared to those without any mental unwellness. Critical Analysis of the Literature Based on the critical analysis of the research articles, following subjects were identified which are discussed in item below. The surveies were a combination of qualitative and quantitative, largely cross-sectional surveies with assorted methods. A assortment of tools were used in these surveies to analyze different facets e.g. demographic informations, behaviours and mental wellness issues. Prevalence of Mental Health issues among HIV positive persons World Health Organization ( 2008 ) study on HIV AIDS and mental wellness study higher rates of depression in HIV-positive people compared with control groups both in low- and high income states. Surveies in India have systematically reported a high prevalence of mental wellness jobs among HIV positive patients as compared to the general population ( Das A ; Leibowitz, 2011 ) . Similar survey in United States besides reveals 22-32 % prevalence of depression in HIV infected persons which is 2-3 clip higher than prevalence of depression in general community ( Bing, et al. , 2001 ) . The findings from these surveies are important and thought arousing in footings of prevalence of mental wellness issues among HIV population as compared to controls. These findings suggest the demand for turn toing mental wellness issues pertinent to HIV population. Stigma and Discrimination A important figure of research workers reported that societal stigma and favoritism of HIV septic persons, ( Das A ; Leibowitz, 2011 ; Li, Lee, Thammawijaya, Jiraphongsa, A ; Rotheram-Borus, 2009 ) fright and weakness ( Whetten, Reif, Whetten, A ; Murphy-McMillan, 2008 ) , cause greater mental and psychological convulsion which finally leads to mental wellness jobs. You read "Mental Health Issues Among Hiv Health And Social Care Essay" in category "Essay examples" The stigma attached with being HIV positive creates a sense of ineptitude and the persons develop an attitude of conveying the virus as retaliation. Shin, et al. , ( 2011 ) performed a qualitative analysis to place the factors that contribute to hapless emotional wellness and its impact among Peruvian HIV-infected persons. Focus group treatments with patients and suppliers were conducted. Analysis revealed a thoughtful penetration into the profound impact of stigma, depression, isolation, and deficiency of societal suppo rt among these patients. Furthermore it was found that populating with HIV, contributed significantly to mental wellness jobs experienced by HIV-positive persons. The survey besides reported incidences of sing hopelessness, stigma, and socio-economic marginalisation of many of these patients one time diagnosed with HIV. These consequences were consistent with another survey by Jin, Zhao, Zhang, Feng, and Wu ( 2010 ) to look into the psychological position and the psychosocial experiences of HIV-positive people. The results of this survey suggest that HIV-positive people in eastern China besides suffered from psychological hurt and see a negative psychosocial environment one time stigmatized as HIV positive. These surveies reveal that HIV positive persons experience important stigma and favoritism which has a profound impact on their psychological and mental wellness and its association with their overall quality of life. Depression, Mood /Anxiety upsets and substance maltreatment In one of the survey by Bing, et al. , ( 2001 ) to mensurate the prevalence of mental upsets and drug usage among HIV positive persons in United States, half of the population screened positive for either one or more psychiatric upsets ( temper upsets, dysthymic depression, generalised anxiousness upsets and major depression ) . Furthermore, about half of the population reported usage of illicit drug out of which 12 % were drug dependant. Similar survey in Denmark by Rodkjaer, Laursen, Balle, and Sodemann, ( 2010 ) found to hold a 38 % prevalence of depression among the HIV positive participants. The normally reported mental wellness issues in assorted other surveies were found to be mood/ anxiousness diagnosing ( 39 % ) substance maltreatment ( 21 % ) clinically relevant depression ( 76 % ) and post-traumatic emphasis upset ( 11 % ) ( Pence, Miller, Whetten, Eron A ; Gaynes, 2006 ) , depression 62.3 % and anxiousness 82.3 % severally ( Morrison, et al. , 2011 ) . Studies in India b esides support the high prevalence of depressive upsets, anxiousness, accommodation upsets, self-destructive purposes and efforts and intoxicant dependance among HIV positive persons ( Collins, Hollman, freewoman A ; Patel, 2006 ) . Whetten, Reif, Whetten, and Murphy-McMillan ( 2008 ) attributed mental unwellness including depression, anxiousness, and posttraumatic emphasis upset ( PTSD ) related to HIV, as associated with hapless wellness results including attachment to medicine regimens and HIV hazard behaviour, such as unprotected sex and needle sharing. The overall impact suggests the increased magnitude of mental wellness upsets including depression, substance maltreatment, general anxiousness upsets, self-destructive ideation, self-destructive efforts and substance maltreatment among HIV positive patients. Social support and internalized shame: Another subject which was found in few surveies was internalized shame and societal support. Li, Lee, Thammawijaya, Jiraphongsa, and Rotheram-Borus, ( 2009 ) carried out a research in Thailand to analyze relationship among HIV related stigma, internalized shame and societal support and its impact on quality of life of life of HIV positive persons. The consequences revealed a important negative association among societal support, internalized shame ( p= 0.001 ) and stigma ( p= lt ; 0.05 ) . Furthermore important correlativity was found between depression and internalized shame ( p lt ; 0.001 ) . Similar survey was sought in Ghana by Asante ( 2012 ) to look into the association between psychological well-being of HIV positives and societal support. Consequences revealed a negative association of depression, emphasis and anxiousness with societal support. This indicates that societal support is reciprocally relative to stigma, depression and internalized shame and some alterations in the societal environment may take to successful psychological version towards HIV. Mental wellness services for HIV patients ; Global and regional positions The critical demand to turn to mental wellness issues among HIV population is recognized globally. However, Reif, Whetten A ; Raper ( 2006 ) believes that important dearth in entree to mental wellness persists for this susceptible population. The WHO ( 2008 ) study on HIV/ AIDS and mental wellness proposed a series of faculties and developing stuff for integrating of mental wellness intercessions into antiretroviral therapy plans. However, the application and effectivity of these faculties have yet to be studied. Apart from WHO initiatives, Baingana, Thomas and Comblain ( 2005 ) affirms that The World Bank is presently â€Å" the largest long-run investor in the bar and extenuation of HIV/AIDS in developing states † ( p.2 ) . Despite holding identified mental wellness issues as â€Å" an of import emerging wellness job for developing market economic systems † ( p.2 ) , it has yet non significantly addressed the function of mental wellness in the HIV/AIDS pandemic. On t he other manus, Khan and Hyder ( 2001 ) in their article reference that private academic centres in Pakistan have played their function in carry oning surveies related to HIV prevalence and cognition consciousness and besides supplying appropriate medical installations and reding the HIV patients and households but these installations are limited and general populace has less entree to them. The nature of reding nevertheless, is non explicitly defined by the writers. The analysis from the literature exhibits deficient informations in Pakistani cultural context sing mental wellness challenges of people populating with HIV, which could be used to supply the necessary services to run into the turning demands of HIV positive population. Hence, significant relevant information demands be collected in order to propose specific mental wellness services for these persons entirely. Critical assessment and Gaps After an in-depth critical reappraisal on the literature, it was found that up till now there has been a famine of research on the prevalence of HIV and its associated factors. However, limited researches have been done on the selected job of mental wellness issues among this population globally. Global Initiative on Psychiatry GIP ( 2008 ) clearly regards the deductions of untreated mental morbidity as both mental wellness and human rights issue. It farther emphasizes that the strong nexus between mental wellness and HIV is a fact but really small attending has been paid to this association. There seems a deficiency of grounds sing mental wellness issues in developing states like Pakistan. The grounds for this could be unequal informations, societal stigma attached to HIV in the state and under reported HIV instances ( Khan A ; Hyder, 2001 ) .The groundss above ascertain the significance of the inquiry under survey. Furthermore, no grounds of such survey which could research the mental wellness issues of HIV positive persons in Pakistan was found during the literature hunt. Restatement of Research Question As portion of my thesis, my research inquiry after this reappraisal would be: â€Å" What mental wellness issues are prevailing among HIV positive patients in Pakistan, and what is the impact of these mental wellness issues in their perceptual experience, over disease patterned advance and quality of life? † This could be a assorted methodological analysis, i.e. a combination of qualitative and quantitative attack. Appropriate tools would be selected for measuring specific parts of the research inquiry after proof. Focus group treatments and interviews may be used where relevant to acquire the responses. Decision The analysis of the literature reveals that mental wellness jobs are widespread among the known HIV-positive patient population. These jobs include but are non limited to stigma, and societal isolation, anxiousness, major depression, substance maltreatment, station traumatic emphasis upsets, societal isolation and many more. The findings indicate that important attending to these issues in context of HIV intervention and bar must be warranted ( Whetten, Reif, Whetten, A ; Murphy-McMillan, 2008 ) . The high prevalence of these upsets suggests the demand for more mental wellness attention installations for HIV-positive patients particularly in less developed and developing states like Pakistan. There is unequal guidance and psychiatric services available for this population particularly in low income states. The mental wellness intercession must non be undermined for these HIV positive persons. Healthcare bureaus must understand the psychosocial and socio cultural context of HIV, guar antee intervention attachment and bar and work at their best to relieve mental wellness jobs among HIV positive patients. This vulnerable population calls for a suited place in the society and ensured optimal quality of life. How to cite Mental Health Issues Among Hiv Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

F1 Racing free essay sample

Formula racing  is a term that refers to various forms of  open wheeled  single seater  motorsport. Its origin lies in the nomenclature that was adopted by theFIA  for all of its post-World War II  single seater regulations, or  formulae. The best known of these formul? are  Formula One,  Formula Two, and  Formula Three. Common usage of formula racing encompasses other single seater series, including the  GP2 Series, which replaced  Formula 3000  (which had itself been the effective replacement for Formula Two). Categories such as Formula Three and GP2 are described as  feeder formul? which refers to their position below Formula One on the  career ladder  of single seater motor racing. There are two primary forms of racing formula: the open formula that allows a choice of chassis and/or engines; and the control or spec formula that relies on a single supplier for chassis and engines. Formula Three  is an example of an open formula, while  Formula B MW  is a control formula. There are also some exceptions on these two forms like  Formula Fordwhere there is an open chassis formula but a restricted single brand engine formula. Formula One Main article:  History of Formula One In the process of reviving  Grand Prix racing  after the end of World War II, the  Federation Internationale de lAutomobiles Commission Sportive Internationale was responsible for defining the standardised regulations of  Formula One  in 1946. The first race to be run to the early Formula One regulations was a non-championship Grand prix at  Turin  in September 1946. The first officially recognised  Drivers World Championshipwas held in 1947 and the  Formula One World Championship  was inaugurated in 1950. This was the first example of formula racing. A typical F3 chassis from the late 1960s [edit]Formula Two The  Formula Two  regulations were first defined in 1947 as a form of B-class below Formula One. [1]It was not unusual for some Formula One events to include a number of F2 entries in the same field and the entries in the World Championship seasons of 1952–53 comprised exclusively F2 cars for reasons of cost. F2 had a patchy history until the inauguration of the European Formula Two Championship in 1967. F2 was an open formula that allowed the use of any  chassis  that met the prescribed regulations; it was well supported during the 1970s, with chassis from  Tecno,March Engineering,  Toleman,  Ralt,  Matra  and others. The European championship ran continually until the creation of its successor,  Formula 3000, in 1985. [2]  In 2008 it was announced by the FIA that Formula Two would return in 2009 in the form of the  FIA Formula Two Championship. [edit]Formula Three Formula Three  has a longer history, with at least ten active championships around the world. It was created by the FIA in 1950 as the low cost entry point to single seater formula racing. In 1959, it was replaced by a technically similar formula called  Formula Junior, before Formula Three was reintroduced in 1964. [3]  Like the other FIA-derived formul? F3 is an open class that permits a choice of chassis and engines. Notable championships include the  Formula Three Euroseries, the  British Formula Three Championship, and the  Formel 3 Cup. [edit]Formula Four Lastly,  Formula Four  is a championship held in Great Britain; this championship is not very useful for gaining experience and success in the competition i s not helpful for drivers wishing to enter more prestigious Formula racing competitions. Formula Four cars are considerably less powerful than their Formula One counterparts. - Racing and strategy Main articles:  Formula One racing,  Racing flags, and  Formula One regulations Nick Heidfeld  and  Nico Rosberg  on the street circuit of  Albert Park  in the  2008 Australian Grand Prix. A Formula One Grand Prix event spans a weekend. It begins with two free practice sessions on Friday (except in Monaco, where Friday practices are moved to Thursday), and one free practice on Saturday. Additional drivers (commonly known as  third drivers) are allowed to run on Fridays, but only two cars may be used per team, requiring a race driver to give up his seat. A Qualifying session is held after the last free practice session. This session determines the starting order for the race. [43][44] [edit]Qualifying A typical pitwall control centre, from which the team managers and strategists communicate with their drivers and engineers over the course of a testing session or a race weekend. For much of the sports history, qualifying sessions differed little from practice sessions; drivers would have one or more entire sessions in which to attempt to set their fastest time, sometimes within a limited number of attempts, with the grid order determined by each drivers best single lap, fastest (on  pole position) to slowest. Grids were limited to the fastest 26 cars and drivers had to lap within 107% of the pole sitters time to qualify for the race; the 107% rule (as it is commonly known) was re-introduced for 2011. Other formats have included Friday pre-qualifying, and sessions in which each driver was allowed only one qualifying lap, run separately in a predetermined order. The current qualifying system was adopted for the 2006 season. Known as knock-out qualifying, it is split into three periods (or rounds). In each period, drivers run qualifying laps to attempt to advance to the next period, running as many laps as they wish, with the slowest drivers being knocked out at the end of the period and their grid positions set, based on their best lap times. Cars are eliminated in this manner until 10 cars remain eligible to attempt to qualify for pole position in the third and final period. For each period, all previous times are reset, and only a drivers fastest lap in that period (barring infractions) counts. For all periods, any timed lap started before the chequered flag falls signalling the end of that period may be completed, and will count toward that drivers placement, even if they cross the finish line after the period has ended. [43][45]  In the first two periods, cars may run any tyre compound they wish, and drivers eliminated in these periods are allowed to change their choice of tyres prior to the race. Cars taking part in the final period, however, must start the race with the tyres used during their fastest lap (exactly the same tyres, not just the same compound), barring changes in weather that require usage of wet-weather tyres. With refuelling not allowed during races from 2010, the final session is run with low-fuel configuration and the cars are refuelled after qualifying. For example, for a 20-car grid, all 20 cars are permitted to take part in the first period. At the end of the period, the slowest five cars are eliminated and take up the last five grid positions (16 to 20). In the second period, the remaining fifteen cars take part, with five more cars eliminated at the end, taking the next five lowest grid positions (11 to 15). In the third and final period, the remaining 10 cars compete for pole position, and fill grid positions 1 through 10. The knock-out format has received minor updates since its inception, such as adjustments to the number of drivers eliminated in each period as the total number of cars entered has changed (from 20 drivers in 2009 to 24 in 2010). [46] [edit]The race The race begins with a warm-up lap, after which the cars assemble on the starting grid in the order they qualified. This lap is often referred to as the formation lap, as the cars lap in formation with no overtaking (although a driver who makes a mistake may regain lost ground provided he has not fallen to the back of the field). The warm-up lap allows drivers to check the condition of the track and their car, gives the tyres a chance to get some heat in them to get some much-needed traction, and gives the pit crews time to clear themselves and their equipment from the grid. Once all the cars have formed on the grid, a light system above the track indicates the start of the race: five red lights are illuminated at intervals of one second; they are all then extinguished simultaneously after an unspecified time (typically less than 3 seconds) to signal the start of the race. The start procedure may be abandoned if a driver stalls on the grid, signalled by raising his arm. If this happens the procedure restarts: a new formation lap begins with the offending car removed from the grid. The race may also be restarted in the event of a serious accident or dangerous conditions, with the original start voided. The race may be started from behind the Safety Car if officials feel a racing start would be excessively dangerous, such as extremely heavy rainfall. There is no formation lap when races start behind the Safety Car. [47] Under normal circumstances the winner of the race is the first driver to cross the finish line having completed a set number of laps, which added together should give a distance of approximately 305  km (190  mi) (260  km (160  mi) for  Monaco). Race officials may end the race early (putting out a red flag) due to unsafe conditions such as extreme rainfall, and it must finish within two hours, although races are only likely to last this long in the case of extreme weather. Drivers may overtake one another for position over the course of the race and are Classified in the order they finished the race. If a leader comes across a back marker (slower car) who has completed fewer laps, the back marker is shown a blue flag[48]  telling him he is obliged to allow the leader to overtake him. The slower car is said to be lapped and, once the leader finishes the race, is classified as finishing the race one lap down. A driver can be lapped numerous times, by any car in front of him. A driver who fails to finish a race, through mechanical problems, accident, or any other reason is said to have retired from the race and is Not Classified in the results. However, if driver has completed more than 90% of the race distance, he will be classified. When required, the  safety car  (above, driven by  Bernd Maylander) will lead the field around the circuit at reduced speed, until race officials deem the race safe to continue. Throughout the race drivers may make  pit stops  to change tyres and repair damage (until the 2010 season they could also refuel). Different teams and drivers employ different pit stop strategies in order to maximise their cars potential. Two tyre compounds, with different durability and adhesion characteristics, are available to drivers. Over the course of a race, drivers must use both. One compound will have a performance advantage over the other, and choosing when to use which compound is a key tactical decision to make. The softer of the available tyres are marked with a green stripe on the sidewall to help spectators to understand the strategies. Under wet conditions drivers may switch to one of two specialised wet weather tyres with additional grooves (one intermediate, for mild wet conditions, such as after recent rain, one full wet, for racing in or immediately after rain). If rain tyres are used, drivers are no longer obliged to use both types of dry tyres. A driver must make at least one stop to use both tyre compounds; up to three stops are typically made, although further stops may be necessary to fix damage or if weather conditions change. Race director As of 2011 the race director in Formula One is  Charlie Whiting. This role involves him generally managing the logistics of each F1 Grand Prix, inspecting cars in  Parc ferme  before a race, enforcing FIA rules and controlling the lights which start each race. As the head of the race officials he also plays a large role in sorting disputes amongst teams and drivers. Penalties, such as drive-through penalties (and stop-and-go penalties), demotions on a pre-race start grid, race disqualifications, and fines can all be handed out should parties break regulations. Safety car In the event of an incident that risks the safety of competitors or trackside  race marshals, race officials may choose to deploy the  safety car. This in effect suspends the race, with drivers following the safety car around the track at its speed in race order, with overtaking not permitted. The safety car circulates until the danger is cleared; after it comes in the race restarts with a rolling start. Pit stops are permitted under the safety car. Mercedes-Benzsupplies  Mercedes-AMG  models to Formula One to use as the safety cars. Since 2000,[49]  the main safety car driver has been German ex-racing driver  Bernd Maylander. On the lap in which the safety car returns back into the pits the leading car takes over the role of the safety car until the first safety car line, which is usually a white line after the pit lane entrance. After crossing this line drivers are allowed to start racing for track position once more. Red flag In the event of a major incident or unsafe weather conditions, the race may be red-flagged. Then: * If under 3 laps have been completed when the red flag is displayed, the race is restarted from original grid positions. All drivers may restart, provided their car is in a fit state to do so. If between 3 laps and 75% of the race distance have been completed, the race may be restarted once it is safe to do so, maintaining the race order at the time of the red flag. The two-hour time limit still applies and the clock does not stop. * If more than 75% of the race distance has been completed then the race is terminated and the race result counted back to the second last completed lap be fore the red flag. The format of the race has changed little through Formula Ones history. The main changes have revolved around what is allowed at pit stops. In the early days of Grand Prix racing, a driver would be allowed to continue a race in his teammates car should his develop a problem; cars are now so carefully fitted to drivers this is now impossible. In recent years, the focus has been on changing refuelling and tyre change regulations. From the 2010 season, refuelling—which was reintroduced in 1994—is not allowed, to encourage less tactical racing following safety concerns. The rule requiring both compounds of tyre to be used during the race was introduced in 2007, again to encourage racing on the track. The safety car is another relatively recent innovation that reduced the need to deploy the red flag, allowing races to be completed on time for a growing international live television audience. - Circuits See also:  List of Formula One circuits Autodromo Jose Carlos Pace  in  Sao Paulo  hosts the  Brazilian Grand Prix The  Autodromo Nazionale Monza, home to the  Italian Grand Prix, is one of the oldest circuits still in use in Formula One A typical circuit usually features a stretch of straight road on which the starting grid is situated. The  pit lane, where the drivers stop for fuel, tyres, or minor repairs (such as changing the cars nose due to front wing damage) during the race, and where the teams work on the cars before the race, is normally located next to the starting grid. The layout of the rest of the circuit varies widely, although in most cases the circuit runs in a clockwise direction. Those few circuits that run anticlockwise (and therefore have predominantly left-handed corners) can cause drivers neck problems due to the enormous lateral forces generated by F1 cars pulling their heads in the opposite direction to normal. Most of the circuits currently in use are specially constructed for competition. The current street circuits are  Monaco,  Melbourne,  Valencia, and  Singapore, although races in other urban locations come and go (Las Vegas  and  Detroit, for example) and proposals for such races are often discussed–most recently London and Paris. Several other circuits are also completely or partially laid out on public roads, such as  Spa-Francorchamps. The glamour and history of the Monaco race are the primary reasons why the circuit is still in use, since it is thought not to meet the strict safety requirements imposed on other tracks. Three-time World champion  Nelson Piquet  famously described racing in Monaco as like riding a bicycle around your living room[citation needed]. Circuit design to protect the safety of drivers is becoming increasingly sophisticated, as exemplified by the new  Bahrain International Circuit, added in  2004  and designed—like most of F1s new circuits—by  Hermann Tilke. Several of the new circuits in F1, especially those designed by Tilke, have been criticised as lacking the flow of such classics as Spa-Francorchamps and Imola. His redesign of the Hockenheim circuit in Germany for example, while providing more capacity for grandstands and eliminating extremely long and dangerous straights, has been frowned upon by many who argue that part of the character of the Hockenheim circuits was the long and blinding straights into dark forest sections. These newer circuits, however, are generally agreed to meet the safety standards of modern Formula One better than the older ones. The most recent additions to the F1 calendar are  Valencia,[58]  Singapore[63],  Abu Dhabi[64]  and Korea. A Formula One Grand Prix will be held in India for the first time in  2011. [65]  Tilke is designing the India circuit while Design Cell, a reputed landscape architectural firm based in India and US are designing the landscape for all the areas. A single race requires hotel rooms to accommodate at least 5000 visitors. [66] - Cars and technology Main articles:  Formula One car,  Formula One engines, and  Formula One tyres A topdown view of the rear of a  2006McLaren MP4-21 Modern Formula One cars are  mid-engined  open cockpit,  open wheel  single-seaters. The  chassisis made largely of  carbon-fibre composites, rendering it light but extremely stiff and strong. The whole car, including engine, fluids and driver, weighs only 640  kg (1411  lbs)—the minimum weight set by the regulations. The construction of the cars is typically lighter than the minimum and so they are ballasted up to the minimum weight. The race teams take advantage of this by placing this ballast at the extreme bottom of the chassis, thereby locating the centre of gravity as low as possible in order to improve handling and weight transfer. 67] The cornering speed of Formula One cars is largely determined by the aerodynamic  downforcethat they generate, which pushes the car down onto the track. This is provided by wings mounted at the front and rear of the vehicle, and by  ground effect  created by low pressure air under the flat bottom of the car. The aerodynamic design of the cars is very heavily constrained to limit performance and the current g eneration of cars sport a large number of small winglets, barge boards and turning vanes designed to closely control the flow of the air over, under and around the car. The other major factor controlling the cornering speed of the cars is the design of the  tyres. From1998  to  2008, the tyres in Formula One were not slicks (tyres with no tread pattern) as in most other circuit racing series. Instead, each tyre had four large circumferential grooves on its surface designed to limit the cornering speed of the cars. [68]  Slick tyres returned to Formula One in the2009  season. Suspension is  double wishbone  or  multilink  all round with pushrod operated springs and  dampers  on the chassis. The only exception being on that of the 2009 specification Red Bull Racing car (RB5) which uses pullrod suspension at the rear, the first car in over 20 years to do so. [69] Carbon-Carbon  disc brakes  are used for reduced weight and increased frictional performance. These provide a very high level of braking performance and are usually the element which provokes the greatest reaction from drivers new to the formula. A  BMW Sauber  P86 V8 engine, which powered their  2006  F1. 06. Engines must be 2.   litre naturally aspirated  V8s, with many other constraints on their design and the materials that may be used. Engines run on unleaded fuel closely resembling publicly available petrol. [70]  The oil which lubricates and protects the engine from overheating is very similar in viscosity to water. The 2006 generation of engines spun up to 20,000  RPM  and produced up to 780  bhp (580  kW). [71]  For  2007  engines were restricted to 19,000  rpm with limi ted development areas allowed, following the engine specification freeze from the end of  2006. 72]  For the 2009 Formula One season the engines have been further restricted to 18,000  rpm. [73] A wide variety of technologies—including active suspension, ground effect, and turbochargers—are banned under the current regulations. Despite this the current generation of cars can reach speeds up to 350  km/h (220  mph) at some circuits. [74]  The highest straight line speed recorded during a Grand Prix was 356. 5  km/h (221. 5  mph), set by  David Coulthard  during the  1998 German Grand Prix. 75]  A Honda Formula One car, running with minimum downforce on a runway in the  Mojave desert  achieved a top speed of 415  km/h (258  mph) in 2006. According to Honda, the car fully met the FIA Formula One regulations. [76]  Even with the limitations on aerodynamics, at 160  km/h (99  mph) aerodynamically generated downforce is equal to the weig ht of the car, and the oft-repeated claim that Formula One cars create enough downforce to drive on the ceiling, while possible in principle, has never been put to the test. Downforce of 2. times the cars weight can be achieved at full speed. The downforce means that the cars can achieve a lateral force with a magnitude of up to 3. 5 times that of the force of gravity (3. 5g) in cornering. [77]  Consequently, the drivers head is pulled sideways with a force equivalent to the weight of 20  kg in corners. Such high lateral forces are enough to make breathing difficult and the drivers need supreme concentration and fitness to maintain their focus for the one to two hours that it takes to complete the race. A high-performance road car like the  Ferrari Enzo  only achieves around 1g. [78] As of 2010 each team may have no more than two cars available for use at any time. Each driver can use no more than eight engines during a season; if more are used, he drops ten places on the starting grid of the event at which an additional engine is used. Each driver may use no more than one gearbox for four consecutive events; every unscheduled gearbox change requires the driver to drop five places on the grid unless he failed to finish the previous race due to reasons beyond the teams control. [79]

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Should Parents Tell Their Children They Will Never Amount To Anything Essay Example

Should Parents Tell Their Children They Will Never Amount To Anything? Essay Somebody once said that children come to us as a blank slate, ready for us to write instructions upon them regarding life and how to live it. Children are the human equivalent of clay, putty, in the hands of their creator, that is, their parents. As such, children have no idea about where their life is headed or how to get there. It is not fair of some adults to view children as mini-me’s who should be far wiser and intelligent than their actual life years. They do not know anything about the realities of life and how to deal with it. Therefore, it is not fair for any parent to tell a child that he or she will never amount to anything. Children do not understand a lot of things because they need people who will be patient in explaining things to them and patient with their shortcomings as they develop their independence and comprehension abilities. A child is incapable of doing many things that adults take for granted because they can do it with much ease and little thought. A child is limited in what he can achieve by his age, lack of experience, and safety factors. These are hindrances that adults have already learned to overcome or get around in order to accomplish something. The inability of a child to perform as a adult does not mean that he will be a failure or never accomplish anything when he finally comes of age as an adult. Besides, parents must know by now that children learn to emulate examples. Therefore a child who is told that he will never amount to anything is a reflection mostly on the failure of the parents in his adult life more than anything else. We will write a custom essay sample on Should Parents Tell Their Children They Will Never Amount To Anything? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Should Parents Tell Their Children They Will Never Amount To Anything? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Should Parents Tell Their Children They Will Never Amount To Anything? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Parents often berate their children by telling them that they will never amount to anything out of sheer exasperation at times. It is their way of shaming their children into pushing themselves to the limit of their abilities and in the end, they hope the child will accomplish the task that has been set before him. Believe me when I say that a parent who instead shows the child patience and understanding gets farther in controlling their children and directing them towards the success the parents wish to see them achieve. After all, you catch more bees with honey than vinegar. Parents must realize that children look to them as their sole protectors. The only people they can come to in the world without being judged or pushed away. When a parent tells a child that he will never amount to anything, a child will see this as a sign that he has lost his parents love. An emotional and verbal abuse that no child can easily forget nor overcome. A child’s mother and father are the most powerful and influential figures in a child’s life. In fact, a child lives all his life trying to win his parents approval and love when he feels that his parents are not satisfied with his achievements in life. It is sad that parents do not understand how much their words can traumatize a child whether intentionally or non intentionally. A child requires a loving hand as he navigates his way to adulthood. He does not need his parents to put him down during this early stage in his life when he is struggling to realize his potential as a person and slowly begin his ascent to personal achievements. Instead of telling a child that he will never amount to anything when he fails, a parent must instead feed the child’s soul and hope with calming words that show how much he is loved even if he fails in his quests. Instead of berating him, help him find his direction and keep on the track that will help him amount to something instead. During the childhood of a person, he learns to build up his self confidence and try new things. The job of a parent during this stage is to help him or her achieve the perfect balance of self-esteem, emotional health, and personal empowerment because these are the factors that will aid a child in learning how to react to and deal with the many shortcoming that will come down their path before they actually reach the final desired outcome of â€Å"amounting to something in their lives.† Consider that a child’s failure is his own shame because his peers will never let him live it down. It is a stigma he could carry all his life because his peers will never forget how he did not accomplish what he set out to do. They will judge him by his failures and he does not need his parents doing the same thing to him at home. He will feel bad enough for a very long time and does not need his parents to make him hurt by using those scathing words. Just as a parents words has the power to instill confidence in a child, so can the words of the parent crush a child’s sense of self worth. If a parent really wants his or her child to achieve or accomplish something in this world, then they have to realize that a child’s achievements and accomplishments can only be achieved through nurturing, encouragement, and uplifting words. Parents must remember that they are the guardians of a child’s hope and dreams. It is not their job nor right to negate a child’s sense of self worth, destroy their beliefs in what they can achieve in life, nor belittle the child to the point that he loses self confidence. The worst kind of parent is the one who leaves a child feeling that he has lost his sense of self and everything that goes with what defines him as a person. Parents must realize that   words have a direct impact on the children. It is a parent’s responsibility to bring out the best in the child. Not make them feel worthless and unimportant.   After all, physical scars on a child may heal, but the emotional scars children carry with them throughout their lives. After all, in the eyes of the public, the failure of the child is also the failure of the parent and no parent will ever want to admit they were a failure as parents or that they were bad parents right?

Friday, March 6, 2020

How will social media change the future of international politics

How will social media change the future of international politics Social media is one of the technological advancements that have made a great contribution to the process of globalization. Social media in this case refers to the likes of Facebook, twitter, LinkedIn, Badoo and many others, with many more being developed on a daily basis. Through this, people are now able to communicate across continents hence increasing the rate at which information is transmitted, though at times it is distorted.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on How will social media change the future of international politics? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Laurie’s article, How social Media has changed us â€Å"social media has galvanized thousands over politics, create as many industries as it has destroyed, and offered an abundance of visual and audio entertainment† (para. 1). Besides this, social media has also contributed greatly to the development of international politics by incr easing the knowledge of politics in different parts of the world and encouraging more young people to participate in politics. Since the invention of social media, knowledge base especially in relation to international politics has increased. Politics is a topic that interests people from all walks of life since it directly affects the affairs of all nations. This explains why political conflicts usually cause a lot of damage and literally bring all the activities to stop. Social media has led to the development of international politics since it is now possible to know what is happening in other countries within a short period. Since the development of social media, there is nothing like political secrets since they all leak out at one point (Shirkey, 2011). As a result of this, political leaders have to exercise caution in what they do or say as it may be used against them in the international community. This explains the decreasing cases of dictatorial leaderships, with the ones which were there before being overthrown through the intervention of the international community. Besides increasing knowledge, social media also encourages people to participate in politics. Previously, politics was considered to be a thing for the old people but social media has created an interest of the same among young people. It is used as a platform to discuss issues arising in the world of politics.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Laurie supports this by stating that â€Å"a look at twitter’s recent impact on the Iran elections, the Orange revolution in Ukraine, and even the election of Barack Obama brings out the fact that more and more young people are getting involved in politics and developing the feeling that they can make a difference† (para. 9). This explains the rise of young political aspirants who launch their campaigns in the so cial networks and using it as a platform to provide their policies to the supporters. People also use this platform to condemn wrong actions by the political leaders since they know that such information will reach the whole world. As a conclusion it is clear that the social media has played a big role in the development of international politics. More people are able to participate in politics and the media has also turned to this platform as a way of spreading news. Breaking news from one part of the world gets to the other parts in a matter of seconds and this increases the pace of intervention when needed. Before the introduction of social media, many nations especially in the sub-Saharan Africa were under dictatorial leadership and the respective media had been silenced on this. Unlike the other forms of media such as newspapers and televisions, social media can be used by anyone and the person behind the information can remain discrete (Frommer and Ortiz, 2012). This means tha t it has become difficult to control political information leaking out to the international community and so many countries are now being ruled by democracy. From this, social media is credited for the advancements being witnessed in the world of international politics. Frommer, Dan and Ortiz Jen. â€Å"The future of social media is†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Business Insider, 2011. Web.. Laurie Mike. â€Å"How social media has changed us† Mashable social media, 2010. Web..Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on How will social media change the future of international politics? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Shirkey, Clay. â€Å"Political power of social media† Foreign affairs, 2011. Web.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Endemic and epidemic diseases in Third World countries Essay

Endemic and epidemic diseases in Third World countries - Essay Example Large numbers of such diseases are seen in the third world countries today, owing to a lack of proper health and hygiene practice in the ways of living of the people, lack of proper medical services, and also due to poverty. Many diseases that are commonly seen in these countries are air and water borne, like dysentery, malaria, polio, typhoid and cholera. Another disease which is now taking the shape of a great epidemic is the HIV-AIDS, especially in the African belt. Here there have been reportedly more than 2 million deaths in 2000, and now around 70% of all AIDS cases are said to be from Africa. Thus, AIDS has become an epidemic in Africa and is still spreading with women being more affected than men are. As Shanmuganandan tells us, â€Å"It is observed that the epidemiological situation is precarious in some regions of the Third World such as African parts of Caribbean and Latin America. Cases of AIDS have almost doubled in the Asia-Pacific region. Africa is the leading continent...It is also inferred that the regions identified to report with a higher prevalence rate are Brazil, The Bahamas, The Dominican Republic, Haiti, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago. In addition, the countries included are Hong K ong, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, The Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand†( Shanmuganandan, AIDS in Third World Countries: A Geomedical Study). Without proper treatment and medical facilities, HIV-AIDS continues to spread mercilessly. Dysentery is another disease that continues to affect thousands in the third world countries due to poor lifestyle practices. As Macfarlene comments â€Å"Dysentery is of major importance in most non-western societies, as anyone who has spent time in a Third World country today knows†¦ If we take just amoebic dysentery In 1981, it was estimated that there were about 480 million infected people in the world: 290 million